—–. 1989. The latest Sentence structure and Semantics from Verb Morphology when you look at the Progressive Aramaic: A beneficial Jewish Dialect of Iraqi Kurdistan. American Chinese language Show, 69. The Haven: Western China Area.
Meehan, Charles, and you can Jacqueline Alon. 1979. The brand new Guy Whoever Tunic Trapped to Him: A great Folktale on the Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect regarding Zakho (Iraqi Kurdistan). Israel China Education 9:174-203.
Sabar, Yona. 1976. Lel-Huza: Story and you will Record for the a cycle regarding Lamentations toward Ninth from Abdominal on Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect out of Zakho. JSS -62.
—–. 1988. The ebook away from Exodus from inside the Neo-Aramaic from the Dialect of the Jewish Neighborhood out-of Zakho [Hebrew]. Jerusalem: Magnes Press.
This type of half dozen binyanim out-of Syriac were lower in NENA so you can a few very first kinds, with a third closely allied on the next
Thomason, Sarah Grey, and you can Terrence Kaufman. 1988. Code Contact, Creolization, and you will Hereditary Linguistics. Berkeley and you will La: Univ. from California Force.
The first category originated from the fresh new peal, the next group from the pael, together with 3rd, whose vocalism observe compared to the following, hails from the latest afel
Various other foundation complicating the difficulty is the differential influences of your own individuals co-territorial dialects. The brand new dialect variations within Kurdish are very considerable, and also to their perception are tracked a number of the type certainly NENA languages. Such as for example, new Jewish Neo-Aramaic out-of Halabja, including the Kurdish of your city, cannot differentiate something special and you may future demanding, however, in which Kurdish retains instance a positive change, very do Neo-Aramaic. For the Azerbaijan, Turkish provides exerted strong influence on this new Jewish dialect (Garbell 1965b), in addition to dialects of simple of Mosul inform you a strong dictate off Arabic perhaps not seen elsewhere.
Tkhuma (Tx): The language from descendants of emigrants from 1 of semi-separate ashirets out-of southeast Chicken, now citizen over the rate my date applications de rencontre reddit Khabur Valley in Syria. Information is out-of Jacobi (1973) and you will my personal cards.
(5) Syriac had about three basic verbal stems, the brand new peal, the latest pael, while the afel. To those were added about three inactive stems, molded on the first of them by the prefixation out of age[Theta]-: the new e[Theta]pael, new age[Theta]paal, and the ettafal. This case can be obtained while in the NENA. In the most common NENA dialects, verbs usually stay in the fresh verb groups in which they were utilized in before degrees of your own vocabulary. That is, the newest descendant regarding a Syriac peal verb could well be good NENA Category We verb, and a Syriac pael verb would-be a beneficial NENA Classification II verb: such as for example, Urmi ptaxa ‘open’ out-of before peal, and you will sadure ‘send’ regarding prior to pael. not, from inside the Jewish Azerbaijani, Halabja, and maybe Koy Sanjaq, the category registration could have been reorganized in fact it is predictable into base of your own model of brand new stem instead of their historic source. Including, inside the Azerbaijani brand new C stem has the setting CaCoC- for voice verbs, any the origin, and you may CCaC- having center-poor verbs: garosen ‘I are pulling’, but kwasan ‘I (f.) was descending’ (Garbell 1965, 64).
(11) Another extremely extreme development in the NENA ‘s the 3rd individual copula which have l: ile ‘he is’, ila ‘she is’. This type may obtain (Noldeke 1868, 203) from i[Theta] leh ‘he has’, however, no copula like it can be found additional NENA. The initial and next person do not have an l, but for the Jewish Azerbaijani, where in fact the l could have been general through the paradigm: Jilu iwIt ‘you (masc.) are’, Aradhin we:winnings ‘I (masc.) am’, Azerbai big’ (Garbell 1965, 64). ile is based throughout the NENA except within the Halabja, which includes -(y)e: yarxa rahamim-ye ‘it ‘s the month regarding mercy’. Neither Turoyo nor Mandaic enjoys variations synchronous to help you ile: Turoyo harke-yo ‘he is actually here’, harke-zero ‘I was here’; Mandaic basim-ye ‘he was charming’, basim-na ‘I in the morning charming’ (Macuch 1965, 443).
(19) The old Aramaic phrase to own ‘son’, bra into the BT, might have been expanded in every NENA except Hertevin of the addition of the diminutive suffix -ona/-una: Azerbaijan Jewish brona (Garbell 1965, 297), Jilu bruna (Fox 1992, 51), Aradhin bru:na (Krotkoff 1982, 122), Tisqopa brona (Rubba, individual communications), Zakho brona (Meehan and you can Alon 1979, 177). But not, each other Turoyo and you can Mandaic keeps a keen epenthetic vowel, however, no suffix: Turoyo ?abro (Jastrow 1985, 221), and you will Mandaic eber otherwise ebra (Macuch 1965, 520).
b) Sometimes, Hertevin aligns which have Turoyo, up against the remainder of NENA. It lacks a great CCaCa introduce demanding (6), has no sodir preterite (12), doesn’t have preposition ta (15), and you will spends ruh to create reflexive pronouns (14).
—–. 1965. The fresh new Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect off Persian Azerbaijan: Linguistic Analysis and you will Folkloristic Texts. Janua Linguarum, collection practica step 3. Brand new Hague: Mouton.